The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of speech. Generally speaking, the government cannot restrain people’s speech through criminal penalties. Certain forms of speech, however, are not protected. The government may enact restrictions on speech when the restriction is closely related to a legitimate government function or public interest, and it is narrow enough to serve that purpose without burdening other rights. The U.S. Supreme Court recently ruled on a challenge to a state law that made it a felony for individuals with certain criminal convictions to use social media networks. No comparable restriction exists in Texas criminal statutes, but the ruling could still have an impact here. The court found that the statute violated the First Amendment, since the state could achieve its purpose in other, less restrictive ways. Packingham v. North Carolina, 582 U.S. ___ (2017).
The law at issue in Packingham deals with registered sex offenders. The precise definition of a registered sex offender varies from one state to the next, and it is frequently subject to amendment by lawmakers. Politicians often couple the term with an express or implied statement about danger to children. Protecting children from harm is a legitimate public interest, but the extent to which lawmakers may go in furtherance of this interest is a matter of ongoing debate.
Under § 14-202.5 of the North Carolina General Statutes, a registered sex offender commits a felony if they access a “commercial social networking Web site” of which they know minors can become members. The statute defines “commercial social networking Web site” very broadly based on four criteria: the site (1) obtains revenue from membership fees or advertising; (2) “facilitates social introduction” between people; (3) allows the creation of individual pages that could contain personal information; and (4) enables users to communicate with one another.