The U.S. Border Patrol checkpoint at Sierra Blanca in Hudspeth County, Texas has operated in one form or another for over a century. Located on Interstate Highway 10, the checkpoint has gained a certain notoriety as the site of numerous celebrity “drug busts,” particularly musicians’ tour buses traveling east from Los Angeles. Celebrities arrested at Sierra Blanca in recent years include Willie Nelson, Snoop Dogg, and Fiona Apple. The checkpoint’s primary purpose is immigration enforcement, while drug interdiction depends largely on the cooperation of local law enforcement. In 2015, the Hudspeth County Sheriff announced that he would no longer take marijuana cases from Border Patrol.
The Supreme Court has held that permanent roadside checkpoints near the U.S.-Mexico border, for the specific purpose of immigration enforcement, do not violate the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on warrantless searches and seizures. United States v. Martinez-Fuerte, 428 U.S. 543 (1976). The Fourth Amendment does not, however, allow the use of roadblocks and drug-sniffing dogs to conduct warrantless searches for illegal narcotics, according to the Supreme Court in City of Indianapolis v. Edmond, 531 U.S. 32 (2000).
According the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Sierra Blanca played a role in immigration enforcement long before the Border Patrol even existed. A single “mounted guard” was stationed at Sierra Blanca and “charged with the enforcement of immigration laws in the area.” The Border Patrol established a station at that location soon after Congress created the agency in 1924. The Supreme Court ruled it constitutional 52 years later.